Vermont IPM Report, 2021

NEERA meeting: April 23, 2021

Ann Hazelrigg, IPM Coordinator

IPM Implementation in Agronomic Crops—Heather Darby

Field Days & Winter Conferences

  • 11th Annual Hops Conference, Burlington VT 2/28/20 (66 attendees + 10 via live broadcast)


Dry Bean Disease Survey

  • 5 farms (75 acres total) surveyed twice during the season in 2018 and 2019 for diseases and insect pests (Alburgh, Cambridge, Danby, and Glover, VT and Northfield, MA)
  • Farmers invited to participate and assisted with scouting 75% of the time


  • 95% indicated learning how to better identify disease and pests.
  • 100% helped to develop IPM strategies
  • 60% helped to test seed quality

Seed Quality Testing

  • 179 samples in 2018; 143 samples in 2019; analyzed for disease, mycotoxins, germination (small grains, dry beans)


  • As a result of outreach and farmer education, seed quality submissions to the lab has increased by 30% since 2014.
  • 3 farmers have reported less issues with bean diseases as a result of testing seed for seedborne diseases prior to planting.
  • 179 samples in 2018; 143 samples in 2019; 212 samples in 2020 analyzed for disease, mycotoxins, germination (small grains, dry beans)


  • As a result of outreach and farmer education, seed quality submissions to the lab has increased by 30% since 2014.
  • 3 farmers have reported less issues with bean diseases as a result of testing seed for seedborne diseases prior to planting.
  • 2 farmers have reported increased access to markets by providing quality information.

Extension Outreach Education

IPM Implementation in Specialty Crops: Apples and Grapes—Terry Bradshaw

Extension Outreach Education

  • Commercial Horticulture website created
  • 154 subscribed to listserv; 289 subscribed to listserv
  • 101 UVM Fruit blog posts promoting IPM tools, Network for Environmental & Weather Applications (NEWA), advertising IPM meetings
  • 130 grower consultations
  • New England Tree Fruit Management Guide updates, January 2021
  • Session planning/presentations
    • 2021 Vermont Tree Fruit Growers Assoc. Annual Meeting, online (Vermont Pesticide Program, Invasive Insects) 2/18/21 (49 attendees)


  • 91% have moderate/considerable knowledge on Vermont Pesticide Program, Invasive Insects (up to 107% increase)
  • 59% moderately/very likely to adopt at least one new IPM practice
  • 69% moderately/very likely to apply and use pesticides more safely
    • New England Winter Fruit Seminar Series. Jan–Mar, 2021.
  • Presentations (attendees)
    • Tree Row Volume: What it is, why it matters, and how to use it. New England Winter Fruit Seminar Series. 3/23/2021. (98)
    • Apples. Vermont Agriculture and Food System Strategic Plan presentation to the House & Senate Agriculture Committee. 2/11/2021 (26)
    • Cider apples in 2021: Where do we Stand? New England Winter Fruit Seminar Series. 2/09/2021 (147)
    • Adding Tree Fruit to a Diversified Farm. Vermont Vegetable and Berry Grower Webinar Series. 12/9/2020
  • Media
    • Redesigned UVM Fruit YouTube.
      • Now 56 total videos collected from previous sited (Organic Apple, Grape, and UVM Orchard).
      • Eight new videos produced during reporting period.
    • The 2020 Vermont Apple Season. Across the Fence Television Segment, WCAX TV, Burlington, VT. 9/21/20.
    • COVID Farm Market Safety. Across the Fence Television Segment, WCAX TV, Burlington, VT. 9/09/20.
    • Seeds to Society segment. Dave Gram Show, WDEV Radio. 9/8/20.
    • As apple harvest begins in Vermont, farmers say COVID is not the problem. VT Digger. 8/30/2020

IPM Implementation in Specialty Crops: Ornamentals/vegetables in greenhouses/high tunnels and nursery settings—Margaret Skinner

Tri-State IPM Workshop

  • The 24th annual Tri-State IPM Workshop was held virtually due to the pandemic as a couple, 2.5 hour Zoom sessions focused on effective use of biocontrols and using natural enemies and pesticides compatibly and common root disease issues and how to prevent them.) Two invited speakers, Suzanne Wainwright-Evans (Buglady Consulting) and Margery Daughtrey (Cornell Univ.) Jan 14 and 21, 2021 (>120 attendees)


  • 71% of attendees attended a Tri-State IPM workshop in the past; 21% 62% of the attendees were new to our workshop series. Of those that attended in the past, 61% attended 1–5 workshops, 15% attended 6–9 and 24% attended greater than 10.
  • 83% of attendees found disease session useful – very useful and 85% for the insect management session.
  • 77% learned new techniques they intend to use this year (compatibility of natural enemies with pesticides, importance of record keeping when scouting, inexpensive microscopes to assist with pest id, cultural methods for prevention of insects and diseases and sanitation strategies).
  • The workshop topics that resulted in the greatest increase in knowledge about how to implement IPM was the identification of foliar diseases (86%), root diseases (83%), insects (82%), biological control use (80%) , chemical pesticide use/integration (61%) and disease monitoring (61%).
  • 35% of attendees indicated on-site/in-person was the best structure for this workshop, 29% thought online was best and 35% were unsure. Many indicated they missed the hands-on and networking opportunities in-person offers while others liked the convenience of not having to travel.
  • The most common strategies adopted for insect pest management were use of predators (17%), organic methods (16%), parasites (15%), nematodes (15%) and conventional pesticides (15%).

IPM First

  • 3rd biennial high tunnel production conference “High Tunnels After Dark” was organized and held via Zoom. This is a collaboration between UNH, UVM and UMaine. The event was multifaceted with three sessions that focused on production technologies, disease and insect pests and soil and crop management. Growers from 17 different states and Canada joined in (>150 attendees).
  • Provided ongoing support for network of over 40 growers through on site or virtual meetings or email.
  • 6 new operations requested site visits.
  • 40+ site visits were made in 2020

IMPACTS: (carry-over from 2019–2020)

  • 100% use IPM strategies (i.e., biopesticides, natural enemies, scouting, trap or habitat plant use, etc.) to manage pests
  • 100% regularly scout for pest problems
  • 67% used plant mediated IPM systems
  • 76% use sticky cards for monitoring
  • 100% rely on the use of biocontrols as chemical pesticide alternatives
  • 69% indicated it was a high priority to protect pollinators and other beneficial insects in greenhouse, nursery and landscape settings.
  • 88% intend to provide habitat plantings to help attract and sustain pollinators

Extension Outreach Education

  • Presentations
    • Smith, C., A. Wallingford, C.F. Sullivan. Diseases & Insects in High Tunnels: Common and Not-so-common
    • Problems and How to Manage Them. High Tunnels After Dark. Virtual High Tunnel Production Conference. December 1, 8 & 15, 2020.
    • Skinner, M. & C.F. Sullivan. 2021. UVM Virtual Grower-to-Grower Session, Beneficial Insects. 31 Mar. 2021. Burlington, VT. 38 participants.
    • Skinner, M., C.E. Frank Sullivan, S. Wainwright-Evans, M. Daughtry, C. Smith, G. Fish, K. Murray. IPM Virtual Reality. 25th Annual Tri-State Greenhouse IPM Program Workshop, Online, January 7 (Bugging Out) & 21 Disease Disasters), 2021.
    • Sullivan, C.F., M. Skinner & A. Hazelrigg. Vermont Vegetable & Berry Growers Association (VVBGA) Webinar Series: Aphids on Winter Crops. September 15, 2020.
    • Sullivan, C.F., M. Skinner & R. Maden. Vermont Vegetable & Berry Growers Association (VVBGA) Webinar Series: Tomato Pests. August 12, 2020.
  • Factsheets & Articles
    • Parker, B.L., A. Davari & M. Skinner. 2020. Can Western Flower Thrips be managed without insecticides? American Floral Endowment Thrips & Botrytis Newsletter, Fall 2020, Issue 3.
    • Skinner, M., C.F. Sullivan & B.L. Parker. 2021. Want to save money on pesticides? Scout for Thrips! American Floral Endowment, Thrips & Botrytis Newsletter, February 2021, Issue 1.
    • Skinner, M., B.L. Parker & C.F. Sullivan. 2019. Chapter 15. Integrated Pest Management in Greenhouse and Other Protected Cultivation Systems. In: Current and Future Developments in IPM; Eds: M. Kogan & L. Higley, Burleigh Dodds Sci. Publ. Cambridge, UK.
  • Websites
    • Overall: 1,950; Ent Lab: 954; Landscape IPM: 291; Greenhouse IPM: 472

IPM Implementation in Communities—Ann Hazelrigg and Beret Halverson

Master Gardener Course

  • Delivered through Extension Foundation Moodle course platform. Plant Diagnostic Clinic Program Support Team lectures: entomology, plant pathology, turf care. Jan 17–May 22, 2020 (105 students)
  • 66 active volunteers put in over 6,157 volunteer hours, 99 projects/events, 34,136 contacts with the public about pesticide reduction, pest identification, IPM strategies (2020).
  • 2020 Master Gardener Course


  • 89% moderate/considerable knowledge about use of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practices when gardening (790% increase)
  • 85–95% moderately/very likely to adopt IPM gardening practices (Select disease-resistant plants, Identify pests before management, Improve timing of pest management, Use cultural practices as first management choice, Use pesticides as a last resort, Choose least toxic pesticides, Reduce use of pesticides)
  • “The EMG’s Course has brought about awareness’s of Sustainable Gardening & Integrated Pest Management that are now a part of living in my world of gardening.”
  • “I thought the course was a great introduction to the science behind gardening.”
  • “I learned far more than I expected and look forward to sharing the information with others.”

Master Gardener Helpline

  • 795 questions answered by phone/email
  • 0 specimens submitted for pest identification

Master Gardener Advanced Training

  • 2020 Summer Pest & Disease Updates (147 participants). Provided by Ann Hazelrigg.

IPM for Pollinator Health

Orchard Pollinator Survey

  • 2 orchards surveyed monthly, 2020 season; abundance, diversity cataloged

Greenhouse/High Tunnel/Nursery Pollinator Habitat Program

  • 9 sites established pollinator habitat plantings, 1 new site trained.


  • 75% of growers indicated the plantings attracted public attention
  • 100% provided education to customers about their importance
  • 88% did not provide habitat plantings prior to taking part in this program.
  • 100% will continue to establish these plantings after the end of the project.
  • 63% gained considerable knowledge of beneficial insect id
  • 88% gained moderate to considerable knowledge of beneficial life cycles
  • 88% gained considerable knowledge of the types of plants used to attract beneficials
  • 250 updated habitat-planting brochures distributed to retail customers (Bringing In Un-Bee-lievable Beneficials)
  • Two webinar presentations included in a “Creating Pollinator Friendly Landscapes” course for Master Gardeners
  • Factsheets & Articles

Master Gardener Pollinator Short Course

  • 2020 Creating Pollinator Friendly Landscape Course (38 participants). This is a self-paced, online course for small landowners and home gardeners in Vermont focused on Integrated Pest Management strategies to attract pollinators and reduce pesticide use in your garden.


  • 90–100% moderate/considerable knowledge of pollinator friendly practices (How Neonicotinoid pesticides behave in the environment, Where to find pollinator information on pesticide labels, Pesticide formulations that affect pollinators, Timing pesticide applications to protect pollinators, Bee Biology, Species, and Identification, Pollinator Habitat Design, Pollinator Plant Selection)
  • 100% of those who use pesticides will reduce use of pesticides
  • 100% learned something that will improve use of IPM practices when trying to protect pollinators in the landscape
  • “It covered all aspects of the topic and motivated me to do all I can on my own land to protect these important species.”
  • “Learned more about IPM techniques and identifying pests vs beneficial pollinators”
  • “Now know the proper formulations, timing, and techniques for pesticide application to reduce harm to pollinators”

IPM Implementation in Pest Diagnostic Facilities—Ann Hazelrigg

Plant Diagnostic Clinic Disease/Insect/Weed Diagnostics

  • Many fewer samples due to COVID-19.
  • No home garden samples accepted in 2020 growing season.
  • ~100 samples diagnosed, IPM information provided.
  • ~100+ email pictures diagnosed, IPM information provided


  • 100% commercial clients said diagnostic ID helped to manage their pest problem with IPM
  • 50% commercial clients were able to reduce pesticides as a result of the IPM information
  • “Maybe we didn't reduce (pesticides) but we at least knew what to spray, when (as a result of the IPM recommendation)”
  • “Yes, with positive ID of certain plant diseases, I have switched to cultivars with bred resistance, avoiding sprays and crop loss.

Extension Outreach Education

  • Presentations
    • UNH Pesticide Supervisory workshop. Tree Diseases. Online. 1.14.21 (30)
    • Southern New England Extension Vegetable Growers' webinar. Diseases of High Tunnel Tomatoes. Online. 1.14.21 (300) (Evaluated)
    • VT Vegetable and Berry Annual Conference. Pests and Diseases of 2020. Online. 1.24.21(201) (Evaluated)
    • Commercial Pesticide Applicators meeting for Field and Forages. Diagnosing diseases in the field. 3.25.21 (51) (Evaluated)
    • NH Arborist Association. Plant Diseases. Online. 3.16.21 (77 attended: 4 MA, 1 ME, 72 NH. 41 for pesticide credits, 47 for ISA credits)
    • MG Helpline Advanced Training 3.17.21 (20)
    • Ft Ticonderoga Garden Series. Garden and Tree Pest and Disease Updates. Online. 4.10.21 (44) and 4.17.21.
    • VT Vegetable and Berry Annual Conference Fairlee, VT. 1.28.20 (200)
    • NH Certified Crop Advisor Conference. Portsmouth NH. How to diagnose diseases in the field. (60) 1.30.20 (35)
    • UVM PSS 127 Greenhouse Management. Plant Disease lecture. 2.14.20 (20)
    • NOFA-VT Commercial Grower Roundtable. Burlington, VT. 2.15.20 (30)
    • NOFA-VT Garden Disease and Insect Issues. Burlington, VT. 2.15.20 (50)
    • UVM PSS 021 Intro to Agroecology. Plant Disease lecture 3.19.20 (60) narrated video.
    • NE Plant Diagnostic Network. Highlights of Vermont disease and pest issues. Northampton, MA. 3.9.20 (20)
    • NE American Phytopathological Society Meeting. Northampton, MA. 3.10–3.12.20 (60)
    • MG Helpline Advanced Training 3.17.21 (20)
    • Ft. Ticonderoga Gardening Conference. Ft. Ticonderoga, NY. 4.4.20 canceled due to COVID
    • UVM Master Gardener Plant Pathology Lecture webinar/interactive Q and A. 4.9.20 (125)
    • UVM PBIO 117 Plant Pathology. Plant Disease lecture. 4.19.20 narrated video due to COVID
    • Hemp Disease Basics Webinar. Online. 8.10.20 (20)
    • VT Vegetable and Berry Pest and Disease Webinar. Online. 8.28.20
    • UVM Lunchtime MG webinars. Pests and Diseases. Online 6.30.20, 7.31.20, 8.28.20 (30/each)
    • UNH Pesticide Supervisory Workshop. Tree Diseases. Online. 9.17.20 (30)
    • National IPM Coordinating Committee Annual Meeting. Recap and Results of the 2019 Meeting. Online. 10.21.20 (50)
    • Burlington Garden Club. Pests and Diseases. Online. 10.22.20 ( 35)
    • UVM Master Gardener Helpline Wrap up. Diseases and Pests of 2020. Online. 11.17.20 (20)
    • Northeast Plant Diagnostic Meeting. Onboarding Committee Update and VT Pests and Diseases of 2020. Online. 12.9.20 (30)
  • Articles/Factsheets/Newsletters/Listserve/Guides
  • Television
    • No programs in 2020–2021 due to COVID-19.

IPM Education for Pesticide Applicators—Ann Hazelrigg and Sarah Kingsley Richards

Pesticide Applicator Education

  • On-demand online training (participants)
    • Vermont Pesticide Education: Managing Pests While Protecting Pollinators (1 credit) (1)
  • Factsheets
    • Pest Management Principles
    • Neonicotinoid Pesticides
    • Managing Pests While Protecting Pollinators (homeowner)
    • Managing Pests While Protecting Pollinators (commercial crops)
    • Managing Pests While Protecting Pollinators: Apple Orchards
    • Managing Pests While Protecting Pollinators: Greenhouse & High Tunnel Production
    • Managing Pests While Protecting Pollinators: Blueberry Crops
    • Managing Pests While Protecting Pollinators: Pollination & Pollinators References

Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture. University of Vermont Extension, Burlington, Vermont. University of Vermont Extension, and U.S. Department of Agriculture, cooperating, offer education and employment to everyone without regard to race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, and marital or familial status. Any reference to commercial products, trade names, or brand names is for information only, and no endorsement or approval is intended.

This work is supported by Crop Protection and Pest Management Program [grant no. 2017-70006-27143/1013802] from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture